September 22, 2023

Legal Considerations for Gender-affirming Care

Courts have recently ruled on an increasing number of lawsuits involving gender-affirming care. Simultaneously, many states have enacted laws regulating this type of health care and treatment. Since 2021, more than 30 states have passed legislation aimed at gender-affirming care. While some states have enacted laws protecting patients and health care providers involving gender-affirming care (e.g., Colorado, Illinois and Minnesota), others have restricted or prohibited available services (e.g., Alabama, Arkansas and Florida). This has resulted in many of these laws being challenged in court.

While the laws governing gender-affirming care continue to develop and evolve, federal courts have provided guidance for employers to help evaluate their policies for health care coverage of gender-affirming care. This article provides a broad overview of gender-affirming care and coverage considerations for employers to help navigate the developing legal landscape.

What Is Gender-affirming Care?

The World Health Organization states that gender-affirming care includes social, psychological, behavioral and medical interventions designed to support and affirm an individual’s gender identity (psychological sense of gender) when it conflicts with the gender they were assigned at birth. These interventions aim to help transgender individuals align multiple aspects of their lives, including emotional, interpersonal and biological factors, with their gender identity.

Gender-affirming care includes mental health counseling and medical interventions, such as surgery, puberty blockers and cross-sex hormones. It may also include treatments for gender dysphoria, which has been recognized as a mental health condition by the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. Gender dysphoria is the distress caused by the difference between an individual’s gender identity and their gender expression.

Employer Considerations

Since laws and regulations governing gender-affirming coverage are rapidly changing and developing, with many states enacting laws banning or restricting gender-affirming care and several of those laws being challenged in court, employers should consider developing strategies to stay informed and comply with all applicable laws and regulations. To effectively navigate the patchwork legal framework surrounding gender-affirming care, employers should know the laws regarding gender-affirming care in the states where they operate and evaluate the effects of these laws, including any limitations on health coverage and benefits. Employers should be familiar with laws and regulations not only in the states where they are located but also in any states where their employees physically work. Once employers know their relevant states’ positions on gender-affirming care, they can review their plan documents and policies to ensure they comply with current laws.

As the rules related to gender-affirming care continue to develop, employers should assess how recent laws and court rulings impact their organizations and health plans. Additionally, employers can evaluate their policies to ensure that any gender-affirming care and medical treatment excluded from coverage comply with the most current legal requirements. Organizations can also carefully consider exclusions related to gender-affirming care or gender dysphoria when those same services are covered in other contexts (e.g., excluding medically necessary mastectomies to treat gender dysphoria while covering them for diagnoses not related to gender dysphoria) since those exclusions may be particularly vulnerable to potential lawsuits.

Employer Takeaway

Employee benefits considerations for gender-affirming care is a rapidly developing area. Employers should monitor the situation in their state and any state where their employees work. Additionally, consulting with third-party benefits administrators and legal counsel can help ensure that employers’ health benefits and policies comply with any legal changes and developments.

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